Obsolete Gene Symbols Removed from
Phaseolus vulgaris L. Gene List

prepared by

Dr. Mark J. Bassett

Horticultural Sciences Department
1143 Fifield Hall
PO Box Box 110690
Gainesville, FL 332611-0690

A basic color factor, producing yellow-brown (Kooiman 1931; Sirks 1922; Tjebbes and Kooiman 1922b; Tschermak 1912). It is the equivalent of P, which has priority.
A indeterminate versus determinate, a, plant habit (Emerson 1916; Norton 1915). Symbol superseded by Fin (Lamprecht 1935b).
A, B, C schematic genes contributing to the length and number of internodes (Emerson 1916). Also used as schematic genes contributing to hybrid vigor (Malinowski 1924).
A, B, C, D schematic genes each contributing 1 cg to a minimum seed weight (Sirks 1925).
Aeq Aequicoloratus (Latin): with P T E Uc Unc and Rst or Rma darkens the banner petal (Lamprecht 1935e, 1948a); with Sal the effect is similar to V (Lamprecht 1948b).
an appears to have the functions of P (Hilpert 1949).
av, sv, iv confer resistance to bean common mosaic virus (Ali 1950; Petersen 1958).
B originally a "blackener", producing anthocyanin with the basic color gene P = A (Shull 1908; Sirks 1922; Tschermak 1912). According to Feenstra (1960) this gene is the equivalent of the G of Shaw and Norton (1918), the F of Kooiman (1920), the Z of Sirks (1922), and the V of Lamprecht (1932a) and Prakken (1934). It is the equivalent of Feenstra's C (1960).
B I hypothetical genes for testa vein color and orientation (Sarafi 1974). Data not sufficient to establish new genes (Bassett, editor).
Br According to Prakken (1972a) the Br of Smith is the same as B. Br with P Rk produces brown seed coat (Smith 1947), br with P Rk green seed coat, br with P rk pink seed coat (Smith 1947). Br considered by Lamprecht (1967c) to be identical with Och.
C R hypothetical genes for seed coat color where C gives cream, R gives red, C R produces milky phenotypes, and r c produces pink (Sarafi 1974). The real genotypes probably involve the Rk locus and its modifiers (Bassett, editor).
Cr with P V gives a bluish violet seed coat, violet flower and a violet tinge to other plant parts (Feenstra 1960); the equivalent of Lamprecht's R (Lamprecht 1940a).
Ca with color genes, caruncula stripe (Lamprecht 1932c). Prakken (1970) believed this gene is a synonym for G.
Can According to Prakken (1972a) D is the equivalent of Can or Ins of Lamprecht (1939). Can with color genes gives a whitish (Speckweiss) testa (Lamprecht 1939) or blubber white (Lamprecht 1951a), with a yellowish brown hilum ring (Lamprecht 1939).
E intensifier with color genes (Tjebbes and Kooiman 1922b).
e (z-2) E required for complete coloring of seed coat (Emerson 1909b); the action of e is hypostatic on t, producing much reduced partial coloring of seed coat and required for the soldier series of seed coat patterns (Emerson 1909b; Tschermak 1912; Lamprecht 1939b; Sax and McPhee 1923; Smith 1939; Leakey 1988). The only published data (Sax and McPhee 1923) supporting the existence of this gene is too preliminary and inadequate.
Epi Hyp interspecific genes for epigeal and hypogeal cotyledons in P. vulgaris and P. coccineus, respectively (Lamprecht 1945, 1958). Lamprecht's model with Epi and Hyp giving 9 distinct phenotypes for cotyledon attachment position has been superseded by a quantitative model (Wall and York 1957).
Ext Int interspecific genes for external and internal stigma positions in P. coccineus and P. vulgaris, respectively (Lamprecht 1945). Lamprecht's Mendelian model with the Ext and Int loci giving 9 distinct phenotypes for stigma form has been superseded by a quantitative model (Manshardt and Bassett 1984).
F was used as a color gene by Shaw and Norton (1918) with basic genes and their C for yellow to produce coffee-brown. It was also used similarly by Kooiman (1931) with C for yellow or orange-brown plus E, producing coffee brown, to give black (A B C E F). The combinations A B F, A C F, and A D F had pale lilac flowers (Tjebbes and Kooiman 1922b) perhaps the equivalent of vlae. The gene is no longer recognized.
Flav has a light yellow influence (Lamprecht 1951a) on seed-coat color; previously considered to be recessive (Lamprecht 1939). Prakken (1970) believed this gene is a synonym for G.
H described by Shaw and Norton (1918) as producing light brown or olive. Considered by Feenstra (1960) as the equivalent of the D of Shull (1908), the C of Tschermak (1912), the E of Kooiman (1931), the L of Sirks (1922), the B of Lamprecht (1939), the B of Prakken (1934), the B of Feenstra (1960), and the Bl of Smith (1939).
ie similar to the action of ip; also inhibits the action of B and G (Nakayama 1959b); considered by Lamprecht (1961c) to be equivalent of c.
inh inhibeo (Latin): inhibits the action of V on seedcoat colors (Lamprecht 1940c).
Ins According to Prakken (1972a) D is the equivalent of Can or Ins of Lamprecht (1939). Ins with appropriate factors gives light buff (Lamprecht 1939) or raw silk (Lamprecht 1951a) testa; has a hilum ring.
lin lineatus (Latin): produces red veins in wing petals (Lamprecht 1935e). According to Prakken (1972a) red veins in wing petals are a pleiotropic effect of the testa color gene rkd.
Mst causes striping of the seed coat (Smith 1947); redesignated Rst (Lamprecht 1947a).
Ms In-ms Ms confers male sterility and In-ms inhibits action of Ms, restoring pollen fertility; in-ms Ms is lethal (Mutschler and Bliss 1980). Without translocation heterozygosity to account for the semisterile class, the validity of the model is questionable (Ashraf and Bassett 1986).
Nud with P gives purple, waxy stem and crimson flowers (Lamprecht 1935e).
Och with P C j gives ochre yellow tints such as ochraceous, Hell Lohfarben, light tawny brown, tawny olive to clay (Lamprecht 1933, 1939); has colored hilum ring (Lamprecht 1939); epistatic to Vir (Lamprecht 1939). Prakken (1970) believed this gene is a synonym for G.
P (schematic) increases vigor with A B C (Malinowski 1924).
Pur obsolete symbol for V (Lam-Sanchez and Vieira 1964; Okonkwo and Clayberg 1984), originally Pur Ro has a deep purple pod (Lamprecht 1951b).
R (schematic) increases vigor with A B C (Malinowski 1924).
rki gives pink background color with C Rma or C Rst and recessive to rk for red background color (Messiaen et al. 1983). Probably rki is equivalent to the rk of Smith (1961) and the rk of Messiaen et al. (1983) is equivalent to the rkd of Smith (1961).
S (schematic) increases vigor with A B C (Malinowski 1924).
Uc Unc (I1 I2) uni coloris (Latin): with appropriate genes darken the banner petal (Lamprecht 1948a); either Uc-uc and Unc-unc (Lamprecht 1948a) or I1-i1 and I2-i2 (Nakayama 1958) for the presence or not of anthocyanin in hypocotyl and stem. According to Prakken (1972b), both of these gene pairs are synonyms for genes in the "complex C locus", e.g., Unc is the equivalent of Str.
vpal with P gives clear light red flowers (Lamprecht 1936); later shown to be a pleiotropic effect of pgri (Bassett 1992b, 1994b).
Vir with P Gri C virescens or greenish shades on the testa (Lamprecht 1933); among these are Russgrun or olive black. Prakken (1970) believed that Vir is a synonymn for B.
Ws confers resistance to Whetzelinia (now Sclerotinia) sclerotiorum. Gene is no longer in use (Abawi and Provvidenti 1978).
X x early designation for inconstant mottling of the seed coat (Emerson 1909a); now C c (Lamprecht 1940a).
Z constant mottling of the seed coat (Tjebbes and Kooiman 1919a); now Rma.
Z-1 self-colored seed coat (Tschermak 1912); the equivalent of T.
Z-2 pigment extender (Tschermak 1912); the equivalent of Z.